A Seventh-day Adventist Organization

Reinhard Schulte, MD


Basic Sciences
Division of Biomedical Engineering Sciences
Division of Physiology
School of Medicine
Loma Linda University
Loma Linda, CA 92350

Phone:  (909) 558-1000 Ext. 42654
Fax:  (909) 558-4083
E-mail: rschulte@llu.edu

Profile Photo

Research Interest

Dr. Schulte has more than 18 years of experience in proton radiation therapy and proton radiosurgery. He has a doctorate in medicine (summa cum laude) and a diploma in physics from German Universities. He is licensed as a physician both in Germany and the United States, and is a board-certified radiologist in Germany. He is also board-certified in radiation oncology by the American Board of Radiology in radiation oncology in the U.S. He helped developing the proton radiosurgery program at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Center in 1993, which has been treating patients since then and is constantly modernized. Dr. Schulte has been involved in proton-therapy related research since 1996. He started a scientific initiative to develop proton computed tomography (pCT) at Loma Linda University in 2003 and has found interested collaborators in the U.S. and worldwide to support this research. His research is currently supported by a 4-year R01 grant from the National Institute of Health. At the James M. Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center, Dr. Schulte is responsible for translational research activities related to proton therapy and proton physics and radiobiology. In recent years, his research has focused on the development of new techniques and indications for proton radiosurgery, including functional CNS disorders and cardiac arrhythmia.

Selected Publications

  1. H. F.-W. Sadrozinski, R. P. Johnson, S. Macafee, A. Plumb, D. Steinberg, A. Zatserklyaniy, V. Bashkirov, F. Hurley and R. Schulte, Development of a Head Scanner for Proton CT. Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 April 2012.
  2. R. F. Hurley, R. W. Schulte, V. A. Bashkirov, A. J. Wroe, A. Ghebremedhin, H. F.-W. Sadrozinski, V. Rykalin, G. Coutrakon, P. Koss and B. Patyal (2012). Water-equivalent path length calibration of a prototype proton CT scanner. Water-equivalent path length calibration of a prototype proton CT scanner. Med Phys. 39, 2438-2446, 2012.
  3. V. Sipala, N. Randazzo, S. Aiello, E. Leonora, D. Lo Presti, M. Russo, C. Stancampiano, G.A.P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, F. Romano, C. Civinini, M. Scaringella, V.A. Bashkirov, R.W. Schulte. YAG(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beams. Nucl. Instr. and Meth A, 654, 349-353, 2011.
  4. Le A. H., Liu B., Schulte R., and Huang H.K. Intelligent ePR system for evidence-based research in radiotherapy: proton therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 6: 769-784, 2011.
  5. Dicello J. F., Gersey B. B., Gridley D. S., Coutrakon G. B., Lesyna D., Pisacane V. L., Robertson J. B., Schulte R. W., Slater J. D., Wroe A. J., and Slater J.M. Microdosimetric comparison of scanned and conventional proton beams used in radiation therapy. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 143, 513-518, 2011.
  6. Penfold S. N., Schulte R. W., Censor Y., and Rosenfeld A. B. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction Med. Phys. 37, 5887-5895, 2010.
  7. Bug M. U., Gargioni E., Guatelli S., Incerti S., Rabus H., Schulte R., and Rosenfeld A. B. Effect of a magnetic field on the track structure of low-energy electrons: a Monte Carlo study. Eur. Phys. J. D 60, 85–92, 2010.
  8. Missaghian J., Hurley F., Bashkirov V., Colby B., Rykalin V., Kachigiun S., Fusi D., Schulte R., Martinez Mckinney F., Sadrozinski H. and Penfold S. Beam test results of a CsI calorimeter matrix element. JINST 5 P06001, 2010.
  9. Garty G, Schulte R, Shchemelinin S, Leloup C, Assaf G, Breskin A, Chechik R, Bashkirov V, Milligan J, and Grosswendt B. A nanodosimetric model of radiation-induced clustered DNA damage yields. Phys Med Biol. 55:761-81, 2010.
  10. S.N. Penfold, R.W. Schulte, Y. Censor, V. Bashkirov, S. McAllister, K.E. Schubert, and A.B. Rosenfeld, “Block-iterative and string-averaging projection algorithms in proton computed tomography image reconstruction”, In: Biomedical Mathematics: Promising Directions in Imaging, Therapy Planning and Inverse Problems, Y. Censor, M. Jiang and G. Wang (Eds), pp. 347-367, Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 2010.
  11. Dowdell S, Clasie B, Wroe A, Guatelli S, Metcalfe P, Schulte R., and Rosenfeld A. Tissue equivalency of phantom materials for neutron dosimetry in proton therapy. Med. Phys. 36:5412-19, 2009.
  12. Penfold S.N., Rosenfeld A.B., Schulte R.W., Schubert K.E. A more accurate reconstruction system matrix for quantitative proton computed tomography. Med. Phys. 36:4511-4518, 2009.
  13. Wroe A., Schulte R., Fazzi A., Pola A., Agosteo S., and Rosenfeld A. RBE estimation of proton radiation fields using a DeltaE-E telescope. Med Phys. 36:4486-4494, 2009.
  14. Bashkirov V., Schulte, R., Wroe, A., Sadrozinski, H., Gargioni, E., Grosswendt, B. Experimental Validation of Track Structure Models. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56:2859 - 2863, 2009.
  15. Wroe A., Clasie B., Kooy H., Flanz J., Schulte R., and Rosenfeld A. Out-of-field dose equivalents delivered by passively scattered therapeutic proton beams for clinically relevant field configurations. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 73:306-313, 2009.
  16. Schulte R.W., Penfold S. N., Tafas J. T., and Schubert K. E. A maximum likelihood proton path formalism for application in proton computed tomography”, Med. Phys. 35: 4849-4856, 2008.
  17. Schulte R.W., Wroe A.J., Bashkirov V. A., Garty G. Y., Breskin A., Chechik R., Shchemelinin S., Gargioni E., Grosswendt B., and A. B. Rosenfeld, “Nanodosimetry-Based Quality Factors for Radiation Protection in Space”, Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik 18:286-296, 2008.
  18. Wroe A., Rosenfeld A., Schulte R. Measured out-of-field dose equivalents delivered by proton therapy of prostate cancer. Med. Phys. 34:3449-3456, 2007.
  19. Schulte R.W. Proton Treatment Room Concepts for Precision and Efficiency. Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment 6 (Suppl), 55-60, 2007.
  20. Bruzzi M., Blumenkrantz N., Feldt J., Heimann J., Sadrozinski H. F.-W., Seiden A., Williams D. C., Bashkirov V., Schulte R., et al. Prototype Tracking Studies for Proton CT. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54:140 - 145, 2007.